TU with Microbiology

Central department of microbiology was established in 1990 under Institute of Science and Technology (IOST) at TU. It is the oldest and only institution in Nepal which provide both M.Sc. and PhD degree in microbiology. Now CDM and other eight TU affiliated colleges also offers the M.Sc. program of microbiology. Each year around 300 students are enrolled in M.Sc. program of TU which is the highest enrollment in the biological sciences and also in top of all affiliation given to private colleges of TU, IOST. Similarly, every year around 700 students get BSc degree majoring in microbiology from 20 colleges of TU of which 8 are constituents and rests are TU affiliated colleges. Our past MSc microbiology graduates from CDM have also proven themselves as highly reputed and skilled manpower in their field and successfully completed and get PhD degree from reputed institutes and Universities of USA, India, Korea, Japan, German, UK etc. Our is highly recognized in USA and MSc degree holders from our department get admission directly in PhD without any further master’s degree.
Microbiology is the study of microbes and their interactions with humans, animals, plants, and the environment.  Microbes are those organisms usually too small to be seen by the naked eye, such as bacteria, viruses and archaea, and eukaryotes like yeast, protozoa and algae.
Microbes influence all living things and contribute to all manner of chemical and physical processes.  Because these activities are so diverse, the science of microbiology is multidisciplinary, calling on the skills and knowledge of individuals specializing in many different fields of life science, environmental science, and engineering.  Microbiology arose, and continues to profit from, several previously independent scientific and medical disciplines, including bacteriology, virology, public health science, clinical microbiology, immunology, parasitology, vaccinology, and a host of other areas of inquiry.  Microbiologists work in basic and applied research, clinical settings, manufacturing of food and other goods, public health, environmental protection, and other domains.



Effefct of Technology in Classroom

Technology and learning

“Incorporating technology into the classroom requires a double innovation,” says Shelley Pasnik, director of the Center for Education and Technology, Educators who receive new technology must first learn how to use the equipment and then decide whether or not it supports the class objectives and curriculum.
For example, an instructor may restructure a lecture into a group activity, having students conduct online research to boost their understanding. With such a vast reference tool, the students might pose questions that no one in the class, not even the teacher himself, can answer. Many teachers and schools choose to avoid this situation by discouraging the use of computers in a well-organized lesson. Their latest shipment of Smartboards, ELMOs, or iPads stays locked in a closet as they struggle to find the time to effectively incorporate them into the curriculum plan.
Despite the challenges, incorporating technology into education still has proven benefits, especially when it comes to personalized learning. From math games that adjust the level of difficulty as players progress to electronic books that talk and respond to the tap of a finger, products that personalize the learning experience for students often benefit their understanding. An interactive game is more engaging than a book, so technology often promotes more practice and review in areas requiring memorization, such as spelling, math and geography. This frees up time in the classroom so educators can focus on skills like problem solving, character development and critical thinking.
Technology also makes it easier to spend more overall time on learning. “After school and weekend time can become effective learning time with the right technology,” says David Vinca, founder and executive director of eSpark Learning, an education company that focuses on bringing iPads and iPods into the classroom. Much like how smart phones extend the workday by allowing professionals to send emails anytime, educational technology extends the school day for kids who will happily play multiplication games or review grammar on computer programs.
Educators also find it easier to track and assess student progress with the help of technology. At the end of each lesson cycle in eSpark’s app, students record a video summarizing what they’ve learned, and email it to their teacher. If a student consistently misspells words of a certain pattern, the teacher will know immediately and reintroduce that specific skill. This kind of data-driven information is invaluable for teachers who want to revise and review.

Maximizing Your Child’s Tech Time

Consider these three tips when you consider your child’s daily interaction with technology
  • Look for Connections. When students use technology, it should be within the context of larger learning goals rather than in isolation. “Technology used in isolation is less effective than when it’s integrated into a curricular set of activities,” says Pasnik.
  • Don’t Assume. There are a lot of facts floating out there, and everyone has an opinion. Base your understanding of education technology on reliable sources. Pasnik suggests asking your child’s teacher about how technology is incorporated into the curriculum.
  • It’s All in the Application. The success of any tool depends on how it’s used. Ask how a gadget or program furthers higher thinking, basic skills, or the child’s ability to evaluate, analyze, and synthesize ideas. This way, you’ll ensure that it’s being used for more than its novelty.Source:http://edutechnologyinfo.blogspot.com/

Looking Ahead

Technology may be changing the experience of education, but the role of teachers and parents grow increasingly important as they become the experts and guides for new learning resources. Teachers remain the constant in an ever-changing classroom environment, which will continue to shift with the technological tides. Vinca agrees. “However technology is used in class, it has the opportunity to be a game changer.”

21st Century Learning tools of Cell Phones

One teacher says yes.
Liz Kolb converted from being one of those teachers who “didn’t see value of cell phones on campus” to devising ways to use cell phones as learning tools. Kolb, a former middle school and high social studies teacher and technology coordinator, said she was doing a blogging activity with a group of teachers when a message popped up on her screen telling her she could create an audio-blog with her cell phone. “It was the easiest podcast I ever made. I said, ‘Wouldn’t this be a great way to do podcasts as homework!’ It was a real ah-ha moment,” she says.
But when she went out searching for resources on how to teach with cell phones, she found none so, she says, “I just started playing around.”
What she came up with was a host of ways educators and parents could use cell phones to enhance learning outside of the classroom, and perhaps just keep students engaged. Kolb, who is now completing her doctorate in learning technologies at the University of Michigan, says while she still thinks cell phones shouldn’t be used inside the classroom, she believes there are ways to use a cell phone as “an anytime, anywhere, data-collection tool.”
Take, for example, this science lesson: your eighth grader is learning about ecosystems, and is tasked with taking photos of insects on his phone to be studied later in class. “There is a genuine excitement about the lesson because they can use their own cell phone,” she says. And, says Kolb, when student’s can connect their own culture with what’s happening in school they’re education becomes immediately more meaningful to them.
And, says Kolb, this type of technology integration will better prepare students for the 21st century workforce, where jobs are performed on mobile devices, such as cell phones. “We see it in places where we compete, such as China,” she says. “The fact is that they already value the cell phone as a professional tool. Now we need to teach kids how to use a phone ethically in the work environment of the future.”
Kolb, who highlights her ideas in the new book, Toys to Tools: Connecting Student Cell Phones to Education, says students don’t need the latest high-tech phones to conduct these mini lessons. In fact, she says she did all her research for the book with one of the cheapest phones on the market. About 95 percent of phones today have cameras, albeit poor ones. But, says Kolb, even a poor camera is a teaching moment waiting to happen.
How can you leverage these teaching moments at home? Here are some of Kolb’s suggestions for using the phone as a learning device.
Be a Documentarian
Ever wanted to take pictures in a museum or at an event, but have been told flash photos aren’t allowed? Enter, the cell phone: the handy-dandy, go-anywhere, flash-free documentation tool. Kolb says a cell phone can be a great way to document family vacations or field trips. Post the photos to a private space, such as flickr.com or flagr.com, and add them to a map to track the places you’ve been. That report on “What I Did Last Summer” just got a lot more interesting.
Be a Writer
Anyone with an adolescent in the house has seen text speak: “c u l8tr.” Some say this new tech language is ruining literacy. Kolb calls it “a new literacy that we’re adapting too.” This adaptation can lead to all kinds of creative ways to reach kids. Kolb says she knows of one 11th grade teacher who encouraged kids to text message each other about Shakespeare as a way of studying for a unit review. They were asked to rewrite what had happened in a particular act, essentially transcribing old English to new English—a tough task considering that most text messages allow no more than 160 characters. “It really forced them to think about what they were summarizing and what was the most important part of the act or character,” Kolb says.
Besides texting about literature, teens can use their text message function to become writers themselves. Textnovel.com allows you to collaboratively (or individually) write your own novel through text messaging. It’s like an any-time, any-where writing forum. Waiting in line at the DMV for your driver’s license? Add another chapter to your autobiography, or another line to your poem. Your text message gets sent to the web site where your story is logged, and the composition can be set to either public or private. “It creates a different literacy, and an opportunity for students to be creative and innovative, while still participating in traditional literature by summarizing and understanding texts, and creating plots and settings,” Kolb says.
Be an Expert
Do you have a history buff on your hands? Does your child want to learn more about how to reduce carbon footprint? Web sites like textmarks.com allow teens to position themselves as experts on topics and share their knowledge. The site allows students to sign-up and create a campaign (such as “Go Green!”) to which friends and family can subscribe. Then, after researching facts, figures and informational tidbids, your child can share that newfound knowledge with his subscriber base on a regular basis.
Be a Mobile Journalist
Let’s say you’re visiting Grandma in Louisiana and it starts to snow for the first time in 45 years. Your teen can immediately whip out his phone and start snapping pictures, or rolling video, to become what’s called a mobile, or citizen journalist. Your budding reporter can then send that documentation through her phone to a major news organization, such as CNN (ireport@cnn.com), or to your local newspaper or access television station. If entries are published or broadcast, the contributer receives credit and, in some cases, could even get licensing for the news stories that she creates. But, besides fame, documenting their world gets kids thinking critically about what is happening in their environment—an important academic skill. “Plus, if they experience something they want to remember, it’s a great way to make a memory,” Kolb says.
Be an Oral Historian
One of the greatest features of the cell phone is the built-in recorder. The only problem is that they often end up being huge files. Solution? Drop.io This password protected web site stores your audio recordings in a private place online. Your teen will receive a number to dial from her phone, after which she can set her phone down and start recording. Kolb says this is a great way to record oral history through grandparents, senior citizens in your community, or local historians. Your child can make a digital storybook with pictures, or just save the conversation for posterity’s sake. “You have your tool in your pocket at all times,” she says. Is your child’s favorite author coming to the next town over? She can record a reading or book talk with her phone, and maybe even score an interview afterwards.
Be a Radio Star
Radio theater isn’t dead, it’s just taken a while for people to figure out how to produce this art form through their cell phones! Your child can create an original radio play, from scripting straight through to broadcast, and record it through an online podcasting site, such as Gcast. Spice up the performance with some simple sound effects, dramatization and music with a 1930’s theme.
Be a Musician
Got a budding musician on your hands? Your child can use textmarks.com to create text message alerts promoting his band or his latest gig. Or, your child can send his music to friends and family through mozes.com, so it can be used as a unique ringtone.
And a couple ways to make family life easier…
Be Organized
If your teen is attached to his cell phone, but has trouble organizing himself, Kolb suggests signing him up for a service such as dial2do.com. It allows you to create speak-to-text messages and e-mails, make calendar appointments, and listen to your calendar through your cell phone. “It’s a very functional tool,” she says.
Before engaging in any of these programs and services, Kolb says parents need to lay down some safety guidelines.
  • First, make sure your child knows everything on a cell phone is public and permanent. “Kids need to understand that once they post on the Internet, it’s there for eternity because everything on the Internet is archived. It needs to be something appropriate which represents them well,” Kolb says.
  • If your teen wants to be a mobile reporter, he needs to make sure that he gets permission from everyone in his photo or video before he posts.
  • Parents should be the ones doing all the posting at first, so they’re modeling the behavior for their kids. Kolb recommends that you explain your motives to your child, for example, “’It’s going to a private account because it’s just for our family to see’,”she says.
  • If your child wants unlimited text messaging or costly extra features, Kolb recommends setting up some kind of work plan to help pay for it, either through an outside job or chores around the house.
Kolb says the bottom line is that parents and educators need to face facts: cell phones aren’t going away anytime soon, but there is a silver-lining to the cell phone culture that we could be tapping. With a little innovation, Kolb says we can teach kids to use their cell phones as a way to learn about, document, and organize their world in preparation for life in the 21st century.


Computer class for kids including programming concepts

Jobs in computer science are appearing at a rate twice the national average, and experts project that there will be more than 1 million unfilled jobs in computer science by 2020. Knowledge of coding can give your child more options when it comes time to decide on a career.


Code.org is a nonprofit organization focused on increasing the quality and quantity of computer programming education, in and out of the traditional classroom. It’s endorsed by an impressive lineup of politicians, businesspeople and celebrities, and backed by a who’s who list of high-tech moguls, including Jack Dorsey, the founder of Twitter, Max Levchin, the cofounder of PayPal, and Drew Houston, the CEO of Dropbox.
The organization’s “vision” is that computer science and computer programming find their way into the core curriculum across the country, so that every student in every school is required to learn coding before setting foot on a college campus.
This would be no small change in education. Doubters may want to know what a school that embraces this vision would be like before jumping on the bandwagon. Is there a school that does this already? Why, yes, there is!
Beaver Country Day School
For most students, college is too late to take up computer programming, says Peter Hutton, the head of school at Beaver Country Day School in Brookline, Massachusetts. “Conventional education continues to embrace the myth that only certain kinds of kids can learn programming,” he says. “By doing this, schools eliminate an important opportunity for the vast majority of their students.”
His school, which serves grades 6 through 12, requires a computer programming course for graduation, but coding principles are taught throughout math classes at all grades, says the school’s math department chair, Rob MacDonald. “Our students are learning the habits of mind that are central to coding even when they’re not explicitly coding,” he says. “We’re confident that the coding skills they learn will apply to a wide range of other courses and disciplines.”
This application of a school subject isn’t uncommon. For years, schools have taught math concepts that many students don’t necessarily need in the real world. Even though we have calculators, for example, students across the country have to learn their multiplication tables and how to do long division. For forward-thinking schools like Beaver, coding serves a similar purpose.
The “Techie” Stereotype
Without the benefit of programming classes in high school, only “self-selected” students who pursue programming outside of school are ready, Hutton says. These eager, self-driven “techies” may have filled every computer science job back in the 1990s, but the field no longer makes up a remote subset of society. Only an institution as large as our educational system is big enough to possibly fill the rapidly growing demand of jobs.
“In conventional education, the strategy is to identify engineers at a young age and weed everyone else out, and then we wonder why there are not more engineers,” Hutton says. His goal is to graduate more students who are interested in and able to pursue computer programming in college and beyond.
Women in Computer Programming
“Programming is seen as something boys do,” Hutton says. While women have made headway in computer technology fields, they aren’t doing so fast enough, in Hutton’s eyes. In 2010, only 18 percent of computer- and information-technology degrees went to women, according to the National Center for Women & Information Technology. And in 2012, just 23 percent of computer programmers were women, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Beaver’s focus on programming and coding doesn’t just work on breaking the techie stereotype, but also a gender split.
What You Can Do
If you’re convinced that your child could benefit from early exposure to computer programming skills, here are a few ways to take action:
  • Check and see what options your child’s school has for computer courses. While many schools require no computer classes, there may be elective courses available.
  • Seek an extracurricular class. Code.org has put together a database of courses, online and in-person, that kids can take to learn coding.
  • Download programs, apps and games that teach programming skills. This is something you can do with your child. You can design basic computer games together or create your own website, or even a simple family blog.
  • Talk to the school. It can’t hurt to ask your child’s school to catch up with the times and offer elective computer courses. Starting a petition and speaking at a PTA meeting are both great ways to have your voice heard.
  • Source:http://edutechnologyinfo.blogspot.com/
If recent history is any indication, computer technology isn’t going away anytime soon. It’s only getting bigger. And exposing a child to advanced computer skills isn’t only an opportunity for future success, but also a chance to bond over a new interest.

Six ways to attend focused Child

Speak a Language of Attention

Attention isn’t just one thing. It’s a set of three skills: focus, awareness and executive attention, i.e., planning and decision-making. And it’s teachable, scientists are discovering, by simply talking with your kids about attention and encouraging them to practice. How do you practice attention? Listen for the trumpet in a song. Play “Spot the Letter” on a car trip. Walk through the garden—using all your senses.

Focus on One Another

A first social skill for toddlers is joint attention—a meeting of minds that comes from focusing on something together. But today we’re so used to splitting our focus that it’s hard to truly attend to any one thing or person. Continuous partial attention undermines our relationships. When we give each other half-focus at dinner or in conversation, we are effectively saying, “You aren’t worth my time.”

MAM: Moms Against Multitasking

Multitasking is a national pastime, and kids are no exception. Sixty percent of kids age 8 to 18 multitask at least some of the time they’re doing homework. But it’s not as easy as it looks! Toggling between tasks slows us down because the brain needs time to switch between new and old tasks, and ramp up for the new job. Warning: Multitasking may also inhibit deeper, flexible learning. That means kids might do well on homework, yet learn the material less well. Teach kids to single-task to get the job done right.

White Space

Quelling distractions is both a matter of harnessing our attentional skills and creating a climate for focus. And today, kids are exposed to nearly six hours a day of non-print media. Two-thirds under 6 live in homes that keep the TV on half or more of the time—an environment linked to attention difficulties. Take a page from pioneering companies who are creating “white space,” places or times for uninterrupted, unwired thought.

Eat Mindfully

We snack, we gulp, we eat energy bars on the run. Forty percent of our food budgets are spent eating out, up from 25 percent in 1990. But this mobile eating undermines our ability to taste, sense and share our food. We’ve fallen into a national habit of mindless eating, says Cornell psychology professor Brian Wansink. Take the time to stop and eat with your kids, whenever possible, noticing the smell, taste and feel of your food and encouraging them to do the same. Your whole family will be dialing down on stress and boosting focus!

Be a Role Model for Focus

If we want to nurture “Planet Focus” for our children, we have to cultivate our own attentional skills, and pass them on. Be an attentional role model. Give the gift of your attention. Carve out time for focused thinking and relating—and speak up against multitasking, interruptions and hyper-hurrying. Rediscover what it’s like to have a long conversation, to sit still, to go beyond what’s first-up on Google. The word “attention” comes from the Latin verb meaning to “stretch toward.” It’s not always easy to nurture your attentional skills—but it’s worthwhile.

Advantges and Disadvantages of Computer

Advantages of Computers

Some studies have shown that children who use computers from an early age have several advantages. Computer classes are taught in most kindergarten and elementary schools, so preschoolers who are already familiar with the operation of the keyboard and mouse will be ahead of the learning curve. They may also have an advantage if they have the opportunity to play with educational programs, as many learn reading and number skills from computer software.
Some experts suggest that allowing preschoolers to have computer time can be beneficial because computer use:
  • Introduces educational skills
  • Teaches spatial and logical skills
  • Prepares children for future computer use
  • Increases self-esteem and self-confidence
  • Boosts problem-solving skills
  • Stimulates language comprehension
  • Improves long-term memory and manual dexterity
The greatest benefits, though, occur when children use computers side-by-side or when they work with adults. In these situations, preschoolers develop cooperative problem-solving skills. They also have the opportunity to interact with others, which enhances their overall learning.

Disadvantages of Computers

In spite of the many benefits, experts also point out drawbacks to preschool computer use. Some express concern for children’s physical health. Others cite psychological and developmental concerns.
Preschooler’s muscles and bones are still developing, but computers and furniture, especially at home, are rarely set up properly for children. “Most parents,” says Peter Buckle of the Robens Centre for Health Ergonomics, “seem unaware of the possible dangers of children sitting for long periods unsupported, with necks twisted and wrists overextended.” Physical problems can also result from sitting too close to the computer screen.
Another difficulty arises when the computer is used as a babysitter, as when parents put in educational games and believe their children are better off than sitting in front of a TV. Educational psychologist and teacher Jane Healy disagrees. She doesn’t believe there is much difference between the two. “Simply selecting and watching a screen is a pallid substitute for real mental activity,” Healy says. She suggests that reading together, having family discussions, or playing are a much more valuable use of time. These activities can provide as much educational stimulation as the software with the added benefit of social interaction. Healy also questions whether some popular computer games have academic value. Some, she says, “may even be damaging to creativity, attention, and motivation.”

Wise Computer Usage

To make the computer beneficial for you and your preschooler, decide on rules and time limits. Using a timer to signal when your child’s time is up helps avoid arguments.
When purchasing software for your child, look for programs that offer opportunities to try many different solutions. These help stimulate creativity and problem solving.
Setting up a separate profile for your preschooler is a good precaution. This can prevent her from clicking on things she  shouldn’t or accidentally deleting important files. Rather than leaving your child alone at the computer, stay with her. Use computer time for interaction and togetherness.
Here are some additional tips to enhance computer use for your preschooler:
  • Look for programs that support open-ended, discovery-oriented learning
  • Adjust the computer and furniture for your child’s use
  • Adjust the sound and screen size for each use
  • Supervise your child’s computer activities
  • Turn off all programs but the one your child is using
  • Limit the amount of time your child spends on the computer
  • Balance computer time with social interaction and physical exercise
Computers, used wisely, are tools for stimulating preschool learning. But it’s important to take precautions for your child’s safety and well-being. Teach your child proper computer use and monitor him to be sure his computer time is constructive and useful. But most importantly of all, focus on learning together, both on the computer and off.

About Importance of Modern Technology

Technology is well-established. From car remotes to medical procedures, technology is part of our lives. Each day, new technological ideas or products are introduced. Because technology is so prevalent in the modern world, it is worth exploring what effects modern technology has on us. The effects of technology can be both positive and negative.

Modern technology has become so entrenched in the idea of a modern society that the two are nearly inseparable. Developing countries try to get better utilities, more vehicles, faster computers, as well as Internet and cell phone providers because that’s what makes a modern society. Modern technology must be implemented in order to accomplish the feats required of a modern society.

Read more : http://www.ehow.com/about_5403995_importance-modern-technology.html

Modern technology has become so entrenched in the idea of a modern society that the two are nearly inseparable. Developing countries try to get better utilities, more vehicles, faster computers, as well as Internet and cell phone providers because that’s what makes a modern society. Modern technology must be implemented in order to accomplish the feats required of a modern society.

Read more : http://www.ehow.com/about_5403995_importance-modern-technology.html

Modern technology has become so entrenched in the idea of a modern society that the two are nearly inseparable. Developing countries try to get better utilities, more vehicles, faster computers, as well as Internet and cell phone providers because that’s what makes a modern society. Modern technology must be implemented in order to accomplish the feats required of a modern society.


One of the biggest benefits of modern technology is that human longevity and health have improved because of its application. As understanding of the body and its functions improves, and as new tools to help heal it (lasers, sonograms, enhanced medication, and nonintrusive surgical tools, just to name a few) are created, life lasts longer. Not only does life extend, but people can live more comfortably, and recover from wounds and diseases that even a half a century ago would have been fatal. In many cases these people live full, productive lives.


Modern technology has revolutionized how people communicate. Since World War II, telecommunications and mass media have been growing by leaps and bounds. Radio, telephone, satellite communication, cellular technology, wireless Internet … in the modern day two people can chat via a computer when they’re on opposite sides of the planet. Communication has shrunk the world, bringing people from all cultures and backgrounds into contact with each other.

The Big Picture

Technology is also the application of knowledge, science and tools in ways that accomplish tasks more effectively. A simple look at how technology has become interwoven into modern life can show its importance. Technology allows many businesses to function properly, allows many people to work from home and helps companies around the world communicate. Modern technology builds prosthetic limbs, creates inventive surgeries and grows more food for a rapidly growing population. It creates more efficient vehicles and allows humanity to expand its knowledge even further.


What modern technology really represents is an increase in knowledge and how people can use it. Modern technology is usually the direct result of discovery and experimentation. Technology is defined as the scientific method being used to achieve a commercial or industrial goal. So to create technology, a bigger base of knowledge and understanding must be created from which to draw on. As improvements are made to technology, so too are improvements made to the pool of knowledge.

HealthOne of the biggest benefits of modern technology is that human longevity and health have improved because of its application. As understanding of the body and its functions improves, and as new tools to help heal it (lasers, sonograms, enhanced medication, and nonintrusive surgical tools, just to name a few) are created, life lasts longer. Not only does life extend, but people can live more comfortably, and recover from wounds and diseases that even a half a century ago would have been fatal. In many cases these people live full, productive lives.

Read more : http://www.ehow.com/about_5403995_importance-modern-technology.html

Modern technology has become so entrenched in the idea of a modern society that the two are nearly inseparable. Developing countries try to get better utilities, more vehicles, faster computers, as well as Internet and cell phone providers because that’s what makes a modern society. Modern technology must be implemented in order to accomplish the feats required of a modern society.

Read more : http://www.ehow.com/about_5403995_importance-modern-technology.html

Modern technology has become so entrenched in the idea of a modern society that the two are nearly inseparable. Developing countries try to get better utilities, more vehicles, faster computers, as well as Internet and cell phone providers because that’s what makes a modern society. Modern technology must be implemented in order to accomplish the feats required of a modern society.


Nepal Earthquake 2015: Damages and losses in the Water and Sanitation sector

On Saturday, 25 April 2015 at 11:56 local time, a 7.6 magnitude earthquake as recorded by Nepal’s National Seismological Centre (NSC), struck Barpak, about 76 km northwest of Kathmandu. Government records said that there are over 8,790 casualties and 22,300 injuries. Further, the government has estimated that the lives of eight million people, almost one-third of the population of Nepal, have been impacted by these earthquakes.

National Planning Commission, an advisory body for formulating development plans and policies in Nepal, released Nepal Earthquake 2015: Post Disaster Needs Assessment Executive summary on Friday (June 19, 2015). Among others, the summary has calculated major damages and losses in Water and Sanitation sector.

It is estimated that the total value of disaster effects (damages and losses) in water and sanitation sector caused by the earthquakes is NPR 11,379 million (NPR 10,506 million of losses and NPR 873 million of damages)

The report said that the deterioration of water and sanitation services, disruption of schools and health services, and the possible increase in food insecurity may lead to a bigger impact on multidimensional poverty. Further the report states:

The destruction of water supply and sanitation facilities will have a direct negative impact on women and girls as they will now have to fetch water from greater distance. The work burden on women, and the disproportionate cost borne by them in the household economy, not only limits the time they can spend in economic activities but restricts them spatially and culturally to activities that are compatible with their domestic obligations.

Here’s a link to the executive summary of Post Disaster Needs Assessment:http://www.npc.gov.np/web/new/uploadedFiles/allFiles/PDNA-excutiveSummary.pdf

Source: pragyalamsal.wordpress.com